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Basics in English Grammar PDF Drucken E-Mail

This site is intended to point out the basic mechanics of English sentence constructions in structural rather than conceptual terms.

1. Basic rules for "auxiliary verbs" (Hilfsverben)

2. Participle constructions

3. Defective auxiliaries (unvollständige Hilfsverben, Umsetzung von "can", must" usw in verschiedene Zeiten

HILFSVERBEN  (AUXILIARY VERBS)

haben – im Gegensatz zu Vollverben (main verbs) -  keinen Bezug auf eine Tätigkeit oder Tatsache.

. Sie haben die Funktion

 

  •  die Bildung einer Zeit zu ermöglichen  z.B  “He is going home.“

  •  auf eine Möglichkeit (can) - Erlaubnis (may) , Zwang oder Pflicht (must) zu verweisen.

  •  Die Verneinung erfolgt grundsätzlich dadurch, dass not eine Position unmittelbar nach einem Hilfverb einnimmt. Z.B „“The goods have not arrived.”  Eine Frage erfolgt –wie in Deutsch , dadurch ,dass das (erste) Hilfverb unmittelbar vor dem Subjekt erscheint Z.B. “Have the goods arrived?“

  •  eine Frage oder Verneinung bei alleinstehenden Vollverben (z.B. Sally drives) zu ermöglichen, und zwar durch den Zusatz von  „do“ ,“does“ in der Gegenwart, und „did“ in der Vergangenheit. Nach do/does/did) erscheint das Vollverb in der Grundform (Infinitive). Z.B. “I shot the sheriff but I did not shoot the deputy.“ Bob Marley.

Liste der Hilfsverben, die immer - auch bei bejahten Verben - erscheinen:

Für die Zeitbildung

 

Form von “to be” in der gegenwart und Vergangenheit –auch ohne eine Funktion als Hilfsverb

am  is   are

was   were

Formen von “to have” (have/has/ had/ wenn die dritte Stammform (Past Participle) davon abhängig ist. E.g.

“I have done my homework.” (Present Perfect).

(Aber nicht wenn”have” in Present/Past Simple eine Tätigkeit bedeutet. ”I don’t have milk in my coffee)

will leitet eine Form der Zukunft (Future) ein

would leitet eine Konditional-form ein

Modale Hilfsverben :

Can /cannot;  could / could not;  must /needn’t (don’t/ doesn’t have to); may / may not ; should / should not ; might / might not / ought / ought not 

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*

THE SAME PROCEDURE AS EVERY YEAR TO MAKE SURE YOU FORM QUESTION AND THE NEGATIVE CORRECTLY

Question ! : Does the verb construction already have an auxiliary verb.

I can speak French.                         Yes        I cannot speak French    Can you speak French?

He speaks Russian                            No       GO TO “DO/DOES/DID EXTRA           

She has done her home work          Yes       She hasn’t done her work. Has she done her work?

They are (working) at home.          Yes      They aren’t working at home. Are they working..?

They went to London.                     No      GO TO DO/DOES/DID EXTRA

You like strong coffee                    No      GO TO DO/DOES/DID EXTRA

DO/DOES/ DID EXTRA   DEPARTMENT

 Examples:

He speaks Russia.  (mit –s)

They went to London. (Past)

You like strong coffee.

Check to decide on the right form of "do"

A: Is the verb in the past?     

 No:  Drop to B

   Yes                                    negative:      did not (didn’t) * INFINITIVE (go, see, play etc.)

                                                              

                                            question     Did (Subject) + INFINITIVE

                                                             Where/When/ Why …  did  (subject) + INFINITIVE

B.  Is there “S” at the end of the verb?   

No. Drop to C

 Yes                                   negative          does not  (doesn’t)  +  INFINITIVE

                                         question                 Does he/she/it   * INFINITIVE

                                                               When/why/ etc    does  he/she/it + INFINITIVE

C. 

                                negative           do not (don’t)

                                       Question          Do you understand?

                                                              Why do you want to learn more English?

VERBS WHICH  COME BEFORE SUBJECT IN QUESTIONS AND “NOT““ IN THE NEGATIVE

1. AUXILIARY VERBS FOR THE TENSES:

a) am/ are/ is -  PRESENT TENSE OF TO BE

b) was/ were    PAST TENSE OF TO BE

c)  have/has:   +  3). Form = PRESENT PERFECT (PRESENT SIMPLE NUR IM ............................SINNE   .     “ BESITZEN“

d) had:           + 3 Form    PAST PERFECT       (PAST SIMPLE NUR IM SINNE „BESITZEN“)

e) do/does  + INFINITIVE             PRESENT SIMPLE

f)  did          + INFINITIVE             PAST SIMPLE

g) will         + INFINITIVE           FUTURE

h) would    + INFINITIVE            CONDITIONAL

a) am not/ am I?/ aren’t I?/ are not (aren’t) are you? / aren’t you? she isn’t is she?

 b) was not/ was I? wasn’t I? you were not /were you?/ weren’t you?

c) they have not/ have they?/haven’t they? - she hasn’t/has she?/hasn’t she?

d) had not (hadn’t) /had you/ hadn’t you

e) I do not (know etc) do you know /don’t you know?

   he does not know (doesn’t) does he know? doesn’t he know?

f) I did not (didn’t) know/ did you know? / didn’t you know?

g) we will not (won’t) / will he?/ won’t he?

h) would not  / would you?/ wouldn’t you?

2. MODAL VERBS

can   - cannot (can’t) can you? / can’t you?

could  could not   could you /couldn’t you?

may   may not/ must not  / may I? /Mayn’t I?      Caution!!!

might  - might not / might it? /mightn’t it?

must    need not (don’t have to - doesn’t have to)  must they?/ needn’t they?  Caution!!!

need- need not (nicht brauchen)+ verb / need you + verb? (auch: do you need to  )

ought to   ought not / ought we?  /oughtn’t we .

shall -shan’t - shall I - soll(st/en)

should  - should not /should I? / shouldn’t I?

 dare  I daren’t / dare you? daren’t you?

could - konnte (st-n/t)  - könnte(st/n/t)

may    darf(st), dürfen     - im Sinne: es ist möglich, dass ....

might  könnte..) im Sinne    es ist gerade noch möglich

ought to/ should   sollte(st, usw.) im Sinne:  wäre besser .., man sollte

dare     wagen, den Mut haben

 

ADDITIONAL  AUXILIARY FOR QUESTIONS AND THE NEGATIVE: (e/f)

with do:      I go - you know - all other main verbs, also  they have breakfast/ dinner/ etc. I have to work (must)

with does: he goes, she works7 he has breakfast, she has to work

with did   he went, they worked, we had breakfast , they had to work

QUESTION TAGS: 

You speak French, don’t you?   He doesn’t speak Urdu, does he?

It might rain, mightn’t it?

Supply the question  tag (with function of “nicht wahr? - ,oder?)

a) The children are playing in the garden, ...

b) You spoke to Mary last weekend,....

c) John doesn’t want to buy a new car, .....

d) He ought to see a doctor about his headaches, ...?

e) There were a lot of people at the meeting yesterday,....   ? ......there?

f) John has been to Venice, ....

g) The Smith family has dinner at 8 p.m, ....

h) He will be able to help us, .........

i) We needn’t worry about that problem, ......

j) The company needs a representative in China,

k) They would like to be invited to the party, ..

l) You daren’t tell them what you really think, ...

m) I’m on the road to London, ....

n) We mustn’t be unfriendly to the guests, ...........must?

o) You had to work until 6 o’clock yesterday, .......

p) We shall have a chance to meet Tom Astor, ....

q) Heino is Aunt Trudi’s favourite singer, ......

r) Let’s eat out this evening, .........        shall

s) Have a good time at the party,         won’t

t) Be quiet,

u) The poor man hadn’t enough money to pay for the fare, ....

v) Cotton is grown in Egypt, ...

w) He never writes to his old friends in Manchester, ..

x) One should always be careful with money,       one

y) Dinosaurs died out because an asteroid hit the earth,..

z) You could do this exercise,

Participles

Every verb has two participles

The Present Participle (going)               

The Past Participle     (gone)  “dritte Stammform”

As you know, you need them to form tenses – continuous and perfect.

However you can use them in Participle  Constructions.

Then the present participle has an active sense

And the past participle has a passive sense – as in German:

Ein rollender Stein ist ein Stein, der rollt.

Ein zerbrochenes Glas ist zerbrochen worden,

In English you may put a participle directly after a noun and then it has the same meaning as a relative clause.

People living near London are people who live near London. (active)

Articles made in Japan are articles which were made in Japan. (passive)

Exercise: Form the Present Participle and the Past Participle of these verbs:

 
PRESENT   PARTICIPLE                                 PAST  PARTICIPLE.

                (SENSE: ACTIVE)                             (SENSE: PASSIVE)

                                                                               

to be      .......................................                      ............................

to have   .....................................                      ...............................

to stop   ......................................                      ...............................

to lie     ......................................                       ................................ (irregular)  liegen

 (regular)     lügen

Put in the correct participle in the gaps. 

Is the sense active or passive?

1.    Those...........     .  .(wish)  to take the German course should go to room 10.

2.    What are the languages......................    (speak) in Switzerland?

3.    All passengers................(leave) for the U.S. must go through a security check.

4.    Any luggage .......          .(leave) unattended (ohne Aufsicht) will be treated as a possible bomb.

5.    The goods  .........             . (arrive) in Hamburg were  sent on to Cologne.

6.    Even people ..........        .(live) 30 kilometres from Lagos heard the explosions.

7.    All articles .........................(sell) in this shop are of the highest quality.

8.    Companies ..................... (export) to Iraq must comply with U.N. regulations.

9.     Cars .................................... (drive) with care last much longer.

10.                      Not all the artists .....................(sing) at the concert are famous.

Translate these sentences into German using relative clauses or participle constructions.

1.         _______________________________________________________

         _______________________________________________________

2.         _______________________________________________________

........._______________________________________________________

3.     ...._______________________________________________________

         _______________________________________________________

4.         _______________________________________________________

         _______________________________________________________

5       _______________________________________________________

              _______________________________________________________

6.::::::_______________________________________________________::::::::::_______________________________________________________7:::::::_______________________________________________________   ........._______________________________________________________   

     8......._______________________________________________________            ......        _______________________________________________________

9      ________________________________________________________

         _______________________________________________________

     10    ________________________________________________________

 

 

 

DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

 (can - may -must etc. and Substitutes:Ersatzverben)

 

CAN -CANNOT

“can“  only refers to the PRESENT . for other tenses use to be able to

 

 

FUTURE:

We will be able to place large orders if your terms of payment and delivery are favourable.

 

Wir werden Ihnen große Aufträge erteilen können,      /

Wir werden in der Lage sein, Ihnen große Aufträge zu erteilen,    falls                          

 

 Ihre Zahlungs- und Lieferbedingungen günstig sind.

 

PAST SIMPLE

Unfortunately we were not able  (were unable) to deliver the consignment on time because of a strike by dock workers in Liverpool-

 

Wir waren leider nicht in der Lage, einem  Streik der Werftarbeiter in Liverpool zufolge  die  Sendung  termingerecht zu versenden.  

 

PRESENT PERFECT

I haven’t been able to reach Mr Smith by telephone yet

 

Ich habe Herrn Smith noch nicht telefonisch erreichen können.

 

MAY/ MAY NOT  MUST NOT (dürfen nicht)

 

Similarly “may“(dürfen) is only in the Present Tense. To translate “durfte“, “ werden... .dürfen etc you use the correct tense of “ to be“ and add “allowed to.“

 

Without a visa they will not be allowed to enter that country.

 

Ohne ein Visum werden sie in das Land nicht einreisen dürfen.

 

 

MUST / NEED NOT

The substitutes are for: must:  have to / has to -:for needn’t  do not / does not -have to

 

Yesterday I had to (mußte) start at 8 but I did not have to (mußte nicht) stay at work after :

Fut:                    We will have to ...( we  will not have to)      (nicht).  werden müssen

Present perf:             have (not) /has (not)         

 

EXERCISES: DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES 

 

 

Change the tense as shown in brackets:

 

a. We must dispatch all the boxes.  (future)

 

b. They cannot deliver the items we require.    (present perfect)

 

c. We must not export explosive chemicals to that country. (past simple)

 

d. Can he contact their sales representative? (future)

 

e. The guests needn’t pay their hotel bills but they must pay for their drinks at the bar. (past simple)

 

f) Our competitors were unable to beat our very favourable terms. (present)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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