Main Menu

Wandering and Spilt Theology PDF Drucken E-Mail
By Julian Scutts

Interesting Parallels between Critical and Theological Positions


My way is to begin with the beginning;
The regularity of my design
Forbids all wandering as the worst of sinning.

Lord Byron: Don Juan, Canto The First, VII

Even if all wandering is the worst of sinning ("wandering" has yet to be established as a recognised field of learning), literary critics occasionally refer to "wandering" and "wanderers" in their articles and books. In this chapter we consider and compare four critical studies, noting different, even conflicting, attitudes to "wandering". We may then inquire how such differences might be resolved.

I: A Comparison of Articles by Professor L.A. Willoughby and Geoffrey H. Hartman with Reference to their Attitudes to "the Wanderer" as poetic Motif


While Professor Willoughby's article "The Image of the 'Wanderer' and the 'Hut' in Goethe's Poetry" is exclusively concerned with Goethe's literary works (not only poetry), G.H. Hartman's study "Romanticism and 'Anti-Self-Consciousness'" ( both cited in the first chapter of this study) focuses on English Romantic poetry with the occasional reference to Goethe and his literary works. The scholars predicate their arguments on what they take to be the shared identity of the “Wanderer“ and “the Poet“ in German and English poetry during the age of Goethe and the Romantic movement. G.H. Hartman discusses the status of the "Poet" at the historical juncture when religious assumptions about the nature of poetry and poetic inspiration were being superseded by secular theories on the nature of the human consciousness. I begin by recapitulating the basic positions adopted by Professor Willoughby and G. H. Hartman and will then proceed to a fuller discussion of issues arising from them.

Professor Willoughby bases his discussions on the recognition that the images of "Wanderer" and "hut" occur so frequently in Goethe's writings that they must be attributable to factors lying deep in the collective unconscious. According to C.G. Jung the libido is engaged in a quest to achieve a perfect union with its female counterpart within the human personality. In terms of Goethe's imagery, the "Wanderer" represents the male questing impulse, while the "hut" represents the object of that quest, the domain of female influence, the family hearth. These images well up from the collective unconscious, and are not, therefore, only of poetic interest. However, Goethe as a poet moulded these and other images into constructs and patterns of aesthetic value. The image of the "Wanderer" presented the young Goethe of the early 1770s a very considerable problem. Being significant to him on both a General psychological and an aesthetic level, the "Wanderer" image poses a central ambiguity which his early writings reflect. This ambiguity first emerges in the “Speech on Shakespeare Day“, an anti-Aristotelian polemic praising Shakespeare as the greatest "Wanderer". The image lends force to the idea of the vast range of Shakespeare's dramatic and poetic genius. However, Goethe was well aware that his choice of word would be understood by his immediate audience, fellow-members of the Darmstadt literary circle, as an allusion to himself (his renown as a "Wanderer" was attributable to his habit of taking long country walks). In two poems written about a year after the "Speech", Goethe adopted contrasting strategies to surmount the difficulties bound up with the "Wanderer" image. "Wandrers Sturmlied" ("Wanderer's Storm-Song") is a semi-confessional poetic outpouring telling of the poet's bold but futile attempt to ascend Mount Parnassus, the seat of the gods and Muses. The poet uses humour and self-Irony as a means of psychological self-defence evident in the closing scene depicted by the poem. This shows the Wanderer wading through mud towards a wayfarers' hut after his inglorious descent from the sublime heights of Parnassus and his return to a chill northern landscape on the plane of personally experienced reality. "Der Wandrer" is a dialogue between a wanderer, a cross-country walker, touring the mountains near Cuma in Italy and a young woman who inhabits a mountain-hut in the region visited. This level-headed young woman counters the Wanderer's verbal rhapsodies excited by the sight of ancient temples now in ruins. It is only in "Der Wandrer" that Goethe succeeded in objectifying the image of the Wanderer to his own satisfaction. 1

In his article "Romanticism and 'Anti-Self-Consciousness'" Geoffrey H. Hartman argues that the English Romantics were beset by an acute self-consciousness and attendant feelings of being isolated from their roots in society and from established literary tradition. I summarise his main propositions as follows:

The Romantics' traumatised state of consciousness finds quintessential expression in the nightmarish experiences of the Mariner as described by the speaker in  The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by T. S. Coleridge. The Mariner is a "Wanderer" or transfiguration of the figure of the Wandering Jew. An affinity between the Mariner and the true Poet is inferable from their common compulsive need to communicate verbally. The Mariner's voyage symbolically records a transition from a state comparable to death to one of blessing, and at the deepest level, liberation from a false understanding of the self. The religious connotations of the Mariner's voyage reflect a Romantic tendency to reveal psychological and aesthetic processes in terms of religious allegories and figures. In the place of the traditional triad of Eden, the Fall and Redemption, "a new triad" of nature, self-consciousness and the imagination underlies Romantic poetry. Romantic descriptions of journeys finally represent a purely inward process of the imagination deriving its dynamic from the libidinal striving to achieve union with the object of its desire. Thus, the use of images and allegories based on the material of religious tradition could no longer point to a religious truth or correspond to realities outside the domain of art in any manner that should interest scholars in literary criticism. In his Essay "The Internalization of Quest-Romance" (2) Harold Bloom defends essentially the same thesis as that adopted by G. H. Hartman when denying a vital connection in Romantic poetry between references and allusions to religious motifs and any objective truth of a religious or philosophical nature. Although G. H. Hartman does not refer to the term "internalization" in the article we are considering, he in fact pleads that the same process H. Bloom describes as "internalization" deeply and irrevocable affected Romantic poetry, indeed modern poetry in its entirety.
Having outlined the positions taken by Professor Willoughby and G. H. Hartman with respect to the significance of the :Wanderer: in poetry, I now examine differences in their attitudes and conclusions which emerge from inferences drawn from their shared recognition of the close relationship between the "Wanderer" and the nature of poetry in the age of Goethe and the Romantics. I discuss these differences under three headings.

The first of these, Wiederspiegelung, may require a short explanation. It literally means "reflection" or "mirroring" and in the context of Professor Willoughby's discussion concerns the reciprocal relationship between Goethe's literary activity and the course of his life.


Both Professor Willoughby and G. H. Hartman refer in their articles to a basic psychological principle as the ultimate foundation of phenomenon they identify by their use of the word "Wanderer". While G. H. Hartman uses a Freudian frame of reference in this regard, Professor Willoughby bases his suppositions on a Jungian premise. Both concur that the Wanderer's quest ultimately derives from the libidinal urge. While in G. H. Hartman's view the Wanderer's quest is fully internalized, for Professor Willoughby the polarity of the "Wanderer" and the "hut" has very concrete connections with the realities of common life. The "hut" is not only a figment of the mind, it also stands for the family hearth - commitment to a social and communal ideal. Professor Willoughby stresses the reciprocal nature of influences between Goethe's life and work, particularly with regard to his friendship with Frau von Stein. Professor Willoughby also stresses that there is another area in which Goethe's life and work cannot be considered in isolation from each other: - travel.
Goethe's philosophic outlook rejected abstractions without a basis in firsthand experience, and the best antidote to abstraction he found in travel and the traveller's enhanced perception of previously unexplored surroundings. According to Professor Willoughby, Goethe's Period of residence in Italy between 1786 and 1789 induced a fundamental change in Goethe's outlook on life, which he came to understand as a "pilgrimage". Seeing Italy's town architecture, its inhabitants and works of art meant more than recording surface features. It meant imbibing an entire culture and its history. Professor Willoughby also claims that the polarity of "Wanderer" and "hut" leaves a trace in the biblical Festival of Tabernacles commemorating the wanderings of the Israelites through the wilderness of Sinai and the booth-like dwellings in which they lived during that time. If we compare Professor Willoughby's opinion on Wiederspiegelung with those of G. H. Hartman on the purely aesthetic function of allegorical motifs derived from the Bible, we might conclude that they entertain diametrically opposed views on the poetry of the Romantic era and its relationship to the contemporary world. However, their views are not divergent in every respect.

In Professor Willoughby's view, Goethe was constrained to objectify the image of the "Wanderer" in his earliest poems bearing the word "Wanderer" in their titles. Did this process of objectification imply a total and irreversible internalization of the "Wanderer" image? In Hartman's opinion, internalization spelt not only the end of poetry's living connection with life and society, but also the end of poetry itself, a logical outcome on the supposition that poetry reached a steady state in which progressive development would lose force. According to this analysis, internalization signalled not only the imminent death of Romantic poetry, for Hartman argues that Goethe invested his major efforts in his prose works in anticipation of the demise of all poetry. Only "progressive" literary genres could survive in the future. There are serious objections to the idea of the absolute kind of internalization posited by Hartman. Within the scope of this discussion I allow myself the bare comment that poetry is still alive and well at the end of the twentieth century. This is not to deny that Hartman makes a valid point in stressing the element of anxiety that traumatised poets in the Romantic age, an anxiety rooted in a fear that they might be deserted by the inspirational force that had sustained poetry in earlier ages. Without any reference to Goethe's historical context, Willoughby stresses that Goethe underwent a period of uncertainty and anxiety when he first contended with the problem of representing the figure of the Wanderer in poetry. One important consequence of Professor Willoughby's lack of regard for the wider historical context framing Goethe’s life and works is the absence of any specific reference to the German Romantics, whose use of the word "Wanderer" as a central word and image was just as prominent as Goethe's. Professor L. A. Willoughby does make passing reference to what he sees as Goethe's low "romantic" wanderers (that is "romantic" with a small "r"). In Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre Professor Willoughby finds two antithetical kinds of "Wanderer". One the one side, there are Mignon, a girl troubadour of Italian origin, and the Harper, a figure somewhat reminiscent of a bard or biblical prophet. Professor Willoughby emphasises their "negative" characteristics, their erratic and undisciplined life-styles which are partly responsible for their early and tragic deaths. One the other, there is Wilhelm Meister, a member of a wandering troupe of actors whose errant life prepares him a socially constructive rle in the medical profession. Professor Willoughby seems to suggest that Mignon and the Harper convey a warning against tendencies that were soon to culminate in the Romantic movement. If Goethe did intend to signal such a warning, he must have possessed vatic powers, as the Romantic movement did not arise until after the publication of Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1795). Indeed, Friedrich Schlegel cited the novel as one of the main factors that gave an initial impulse to the Romantic movement. In view of Goethe's later altercations with the Romantics, it might seem paradoxical that he should have been one of its chief instigators, unless one takes account of the phenomenon called "introversion". Introversion results from a selective assimilation of certain elements that one author finds in the work of another, and the exclusion of others. In accord with this principle the Romantics avidly accepted Mignon and the Harper as models to emulate but rejected Wilhelm, for they saw in him one who embodied Goethe's assertion of the principle that it is incumbent on artists to pursue a useful and socially beneficial goal. Joseph von Eichendorff’s celebrated novelle: Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts (From the Life of a Good-for-Nothing) expresses a rejection of Goethe's belief in the necessity of combining art and social or utilitarian priorities.


A definition of the logocentric method to be applied in this study has already been outlined. Though Professor Willoughby refers to the images of the "Wanderer" and "hut", his basic approach can be construed as logocentric in view of the fact that the "images" he refers to coincide in most cases with occurrences of the words "Wanderer" and "Hütte". His vacillation between references to "hut" and "Hütte" points to an ambiguity. Is Willoughby primarily concerned with a theme identified by a word having a merely designating function, or does he interpret words in the light of their textual settings with thus allow himself to consider the possibility of their having a wide range of meanings? Professor Willoughby begins his article with the observation that the "images" of the "Wanderer" and the "hut" occur so frequently, both separately and in combination, that they must result from some pattern-forming propensity in the author's mind. He applies, in effect, the statistical criteria favoured by linguists and textual critics who find language theories relevant to problems encountered in literary studies. Professor Willougby assumes that a single principle of unity and coherence transcends all differences in Goethe's literary works, affecting even the choice of individual words and their location in a text. The organising effect of this principle is so far-reaching as to lie beyond the full conscious control of the author.

A number of scholars have attempted to map an author's mind by noting idiosyncrasies of language and word use that emerge from a study of his or her literary works. In her monograph Browning's Poetry of Reticence, for example, Barbara Melchiori observes that the word "gold" is the most frequently used substantive in Robert Browning's poetic works (occurring altogether about 390 times), and must consequently be regarded as a word of special significance to Browning at a deep unconscious level. 3 Though I consider Professor Willoughby's approach to the phenomenon of the "Wanderer" to be essentially logocentric, his article entitled "The Image of the 'Wanderer' and the 'Hut' in Goethe's Poetry“ contains references to the "image" of the "Wanderer", and not specifically to "the word" as such. The term "image" has gained much favour in twentieth-century criticism. When referring to an "image" in poetry, one is using a metaphor rather than a precise definition. This metaphor is particularly apt when it directs attention to the spontaneous and incandescent effects of poetic language. Professor Willoughby sometimes gives the term an altogether different significance when he suggests that the image of the "Wanderer" informs not only metaphors contained by a literary work, but also entire literary works themselves (cf. Faust), to which it furnishes a comprehensive sustained metaphor, i.e. an allegorical frame. Perhaps there is one way of understanding the connection between the vagaries of wandering and the creation of vivid imagery if we recognize that "wandering" essentially does not concern the wanderer's itinery, his initial purposes and goals. Rather, what interests us about wandering is the wanderer's mentality, even his psychological vulnerability giving rise to his experience of moments of intense awareness in encountering the unexpected, host of golden daffodils or the sea-serpents seen by the ancient mariner at a juncture that can be well described as the turning-point of Coleridge's famous and enigmatic balad. In this case the vision is tantamount to a conversion experience.


Professor Willoughby emphasises the part played by unconscious influences contributing to Goethe's powers of imagination and creativity, such as when he refers to the collective unconscious posited by Jung. He also predicates the unity suffusing all Goethe's works on some power of co-ordination that obviously transcends the consciously controlled functions of the mind such as the memory, for Goethe could never have deliberately cross-referenced all occurrences of the words "Wanderer" and "Hütte" in his works.

Willoughby limits the scope of his investigation to analysis based solely on a review of Goethe's life and works without relating his findings to even a brief discussion of contemporary trends and historical currents, effectively precluding the possibility of considering epochal influences that could only be meaningfully evaluated in a comparative survey involving some reference to the works of Goethe's contemporaries in the world of literature.

Treating Goethe as though he lived in a historical and linguistic vacuum prevents any evaluation of the influence of an epoch on states of consciousness as reflected by the choice and position of words in literary works, a factor we might consider with respect to J. Tynjanov's discussion of "the Word in Verse".
Geoffrey Hartman, on the other hand, addresses his attention to the prevalent influence of the age that encompassed the works of Goethe and the Romantics - an influence so powerful as to induce that collective alteration of consciousness to which Hartman attributes the Romantics' intensely burdensome "self-consciousness". In my view, we have to take account of the interaction of both the ahistorical unconscious posited by Jung and the new self-consciousness to which Goethe and the Romantics were subject. M. Bakhtin is one of the few critics who to my mind appears able to admit that literature reflects simultaneously a timeless or time- ranging influence (identified as "the Carnivalesque") as well as an awareness of historical change.

II: A Comparison of Opinions put forward by Northrop Frye and Bernard Blackstone reflected by their Use of the Words "Wanderer" and other Derivatives of the Verb "to wander"

Hartman's perception of "a new triad" in Romantic poetry finds parallels in the discovery of analogous patterns associated with "the Wanderer" by the critics whose findings we shall now compare, namely Northrop Frye and Bernard Blackstone.

Northrop Frye's Anatomy of Criticism contains an exposition of its author's theory of myths. 4 According to this theory the principal literary genres identified as "tragedy", "comedy", "romance", and "Satire", incorporate recurrent mythical archetypes that respectively mirror a season in the annual cycle. "Romance" in such terms is a myth of summer, while, "satire" is myth of winter. "Romance" typically concerns an archetypal hero who finally vindicates himself as the victor over evil, though often after severe and almost fatal sufferings. In a section of Frye's monograph with the subtitle "The Mythos of Summer  Romance", there is a paragraph containing four occurrences of the verb "to wander" that throw considerable light on the issues we have been considering. This paragraph is concerned with the basic plan underlying Milton's Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained.

1. Moses and the Israelites wander through a labyrinthine desert,
2. Adam is cast out of Eden, loses the river of life and the tree of life, and wanders in the ....labyrinth of human history...
3. Israel is cast out of his inheritance and wanders in the labyrinth of Egypt and the ....Babylonian captivity.
4. Christ is in the situation under the law, wandering in the wilderness.

Frye's choice of verb reflects that of Milton.
concerning the Fall: Paradise Lost, IX, 1136 and 1146 and XII, 648);
concerning Christ's wandering in the wilderness; Paradise Regained, IV, 600;.
concerning the wandering of Israel under Moses; Paradise Regained, I, 354.

Frye discerns two concentric quest myths in Milton's Paradise epics, a "genesis-apocalypse myth" and an "Exodus-millennium myth". Both myths describe a circle, ending where they begin. Frye seems to find little room for the educating and moral value of wandering itself, as this would presumably point to the word's personal and religious implications, implications which do not accord with Frye's concept of the purely literary relevance of "myths". He shows little interest in speculation concerning either the origins of myth in what he describes as "murky" unconscious factors or similarities between the "true hero" of romance and the solar heroes that loom large in psychological and anthropological analyses (Jung interprets the wanderers of ancient legend and myth, Gilgamesh, Ulysses, Dionysos, etc. as those vicariously passing through the realms of day and night in a symbolic framework making the sun a symbol representing the libido).
A distinctly different point of view from Frye's is upheld in Bernard Blackstone's monograph The Travellers Lost 5 The author begins his study by emphasising that the primary metaphors in Romantic poetry are based on references to motion and journeys. He discerns a "true wanderer pattern" in Romantic poetry based on acceptance of Christian belief in "a Fall, an Original: or Radical Sin, and a Redemption". 6 Coleridge, Blake and Byron fulfil this condition, and are "Christians". Wordsworth, Keats and Shelley do not fulfil it, and are not "Christians". While the former group journey from Eden to Heavenly Jerusalem, the latter's journey is "from a slum to a garden". 7 Wordsworth, in particular, is the object of severe criticism. His journey is "circuitous" and lacks true progression.

Blackstone points to the story of the Prodigal son as a dominant motif in Coleridge's poetry. The logocentric approach adopted in this study also highlights its central importance in Romantic poetry and elsewhere, as an earlier discussion of Robinson Crusoe has shown. While a comparison of opinions stated by Professor Willoughby and G.H. Hartman reveal strong differences on the question of the relationship between literature and realities outside it, a comparison of opinions stated by Northrop Frye and Bernard Blackstone reveal a complete divergence of attitude to the possible relevance of religious propositions to the criticism of literature. Closely related to such ideological differences is a strong readiness to place a harsh value-judgement on whatever allegedly circuitous or progressive qualities they perceive in literary works. I cannot help expressing the opinion that Blackstone's analyses show themselves at their weakest when he allows religious views to intrude into his line of argument, even though I agree in principle that questions of religious belief have a strong bearing on literary issues. Once critics go so far as to condemn poets because they seem to hold different religious (or other ideological) opinions from their own, somewhere a warning light should start blinking. According another man's religious book, Byron might well belong to the non-Christian camp. As to Wordsworth, M. Abrams discerns in The Prelude the allegorical substructure of the wanderings of the Israelites to the Promised Land replete with a specific reference to the vision of Moses experienced on the summit of Mount Pisgah. 8 Both the internal school of critics and those who adopt a more linguistically based (logocentric approach) will agree on one question at least: the literary text is in its very nature progressive. A word's significance is not conditioned by its meaning in terms of a dictionary's definition only, or indeed most significantly, but by its position in the text. Here Calvin S. Brown's analogy between symbols in a poem and "musical" motifs that "develop" as a piece of music proceeds is most apt. While Blackstone is arbitrary in his readiness to judge or condemn poets on the basis of the allegedly progressive on non-progressive quality of their works, Northrop Frye finds little if any room for the even the possibility of progression in poetry . He justifies his belief in the ahistorical nature of literary archetypes on the supposition that myths are timeless. I refer to a totally different understanding of what constitutes a myth in the following section.

III: The Four Critics' Findings Compared

The four positions articulated by the critics whose discussions I have reviewed flatly contradict each other when they define what they themselves identify as "wandering". Their differences emerge most clearly when their assertions concerning the poetic imagination imply a notion of time.

Two basic understandings of time come into question. One may conceive of time in terms of a closed internally regulated cycle, or in terms of an ongoing linear process such as that typical of history or personal experience. The opposition between cyclical and linear processes may be encountered in many fields of learning, history, philosophy, psychology and so on. It usually appears possible to accommodate both ways of understanding time within a comprehensive framework.

In their various ways, the critics referred to above fail to see "wandering" whole. In my view this failure leads to a bias in their evaluation of literary works and a blindness to evidence provided by the poets whose works they consider. I cite examples of what I mean. In the lines from Anatomy of Criticism quoted above the verb "to wander" acquires an unmitigated negative association with the "labyrinth" of "the law" and "history". In a later section of this study occurrences of the verb "to wander" in Paradise Lost will show that the verb carries a positive association through implications concerning moral freedom, the necessity of learning from life and experience. The mixture of negative and positive aspects that inheres in "wandering" is fully compatible with orthodox theology and the Thomist dictum of 2felix culpa". Northrop Frye is unsympathetic to Milton's theology because in this critic's view literature is informed by "myths" and, to follow his argument, myth and history pose diametric opposites. Not all researchers of mythology agree. Robert Graves saw in myths an inseparable combination of historical and imaginative or invented elements. These elements can be discovered in the mythical journeys of ancient heroes described in The Epic of Gilgamesh, The Odyssey and The Aeneid. Gilgamesh, Ulysses and Aeneas enter the underworld. Jung explained these excursions as a symbolic representation of the solar hero's entry into the domain of night reflecting the libido's quest for union with its source. On the other hand as M. Bakhtin pointed out, the journeys of Ulysses originally had a political justification in legitimating a hierarchy of government and land occupation. 9 To this extent, at least, the history of Israel's migration toward the Promised Land and the Homeric journey share a close affinity. In fact they provide motifs and strands that have often been intertwined into the fabric of one work. However, as Erich Auerbach argues in Mimesis, 10 the biblical mode of narrating an event typically evinces an awareness of historical time, while the Homeric epic evinces a more fluid sense of time. The Miltonic epic juxtaposes elements derived from both the biblical and Homeric traditions using nautical imagery to describe the movements of Satan, while Jesus is depicted as a Wanderer in a "wilderness". As protagonists seeking to establish a new order, be this the kingdom of God or the Evil Empire, Jesus and Satan are also Wanderers, the founders of dynasties or kingdoms.

G. H. Hartman's contention that the metaphor of the journey lost its power to recall religions truth harbours a Paradox. He argues in effect that at a particular historical juncture poetry lost contact with history. Its shedding of all "external" elements, Hartman argues, would lead inexorably to the end of poetry, and anticipating this, Goethe increasingly devoted himself to prose works as these retained a "progressive" quality. Hartman's admission that the total internalization of poetry would lead to its end reveals to my mind the limitation inherent in the term "internal", which is itself based on a metaphor. If the poetic imagination were to it lose any connection with historical and biographical realities, it would be reduced to the rle of reflecting a general patterns in the mind, producing perhaps a map of the mind , even a model for explaining Freudian theories on psychology. Poetry then ceases to be literature and becomes are expression of a non-literary (i.e. exterior) discipline. Poetry still exists in the modern world, and the reason for this is, I believe, that poetic language is irreducible to a statement about psychology or critical theory. One may possibly "deconstruct" poetry at one level of significance but never at the levels that are not fully subject to a consciously directed plan or design.
Professor Willoughby comes closest of the critics whose arguments have been considered to achieving a balance in his discussion of the significance of the Wanderer in poetry. On the one hand, he refers to Jung's theory of the unconscious when seeking to explain why the image of the "Wanderer" occurs so frequently in Goethe's poetry. On the other, he treats the phenomenon surrounding the word as an inseparable aspect of Goethe's life and personal development. Willoughby has therefore the theoretical basis for accepting both the cyclical and the linear-progressive facets of "wandering". In effect, he emphasises its progressive features considerably more than its cyclical and universal aspects. Perhaps it is for his reason that he disparages "romantic" wandering and suggests that in the figures of the Harper and Mignon one should discern negative examples of the wrong kind of Wanderer. If one looks a Goethe's works generally, one will note a tendency to associate two protagonists, one of whom is a survivor and the other a tragic failure or one who meets a premature death. It is not always the survivor who earns great interest and sympathy in the respective work. It is Werther, Tasso and Egmont that chiefly interest us, not figures like Albert or William of Orange. Two apparently conflicting kinds of "wandering" complement each other, being derived from a duality than indwells the human mind and personality.


1. "Der Wandrer" is located at the crossroads of reciprocal influences affecting English and German poetry; Young Goethe was an avid reader of Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield and The Traveller, an account in verse of Goldsmith's tour of various European countries. This highly reflective poetic travelogue leaves a trace in the influence it exerted on "Der Wandrer". William Taylor of Norwich translated "Der Wandrer" into English in the 1790s. Wordsworth read this translation, entitled "The Wanderer", and its abiding influence on him gave rise to the figure of the Wanderer in The Excursion.

2. Harold Bloom, "The Internalization of Quest-Romance" in The Yale Review, Vol. LVIII, No.4 (Summer, 1969).

3. Barbara Melchiori, Browning's Poetry of Reticence, London, 1968. According to Barbara Melchiori, a careful evaluation of verbal clues will allow critics to probe into significances which the poet himself may wish to conceal, granted that he is even aware of them himself.

4. Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism Four Essays, (Princeton, 1957).

5. Bernard Blackstone, The Travellers Lost, (Norwich, 1962).

6. Ibidem, p.20.

7. Ibidem, p.10.

8. M.H Abrams, ''The Design of The Prelude Wordsworth's Long Journey Home From: Tradition and Natural Supernaturalism and .....Revolution" in Romantic Literature (New York, 1971).

9. M.M.Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination, ed. M. Holquist, ( Austin, 1981).

10. Erich Auerbach, Mimesis Dargestellte Wirklichkeit in der abendländischen Literatur, (Bern, 1946).

< zurück   weiter >

© 2019
Joomla! is Free Software released under the GNU/GPL License.